He was, of course, a landscape painter first and foremost yet this scene is captured indoors, albeit in a particular grand location. Without the foliage of his signature style the artist is forced to fall back on his architectural skills which thankfully are also of an impressive level. Added to this are a large number of figures who fill the foreground of the scene with acitivty and colour.
Many of the artist's non-landscape works were inspired by themes from religious scripture, most likely at the request of the commissioning donor. The colours in this seen are particularly bright, perhaps similar to those used by some of the stars of the Venetian School such as Giorgione and Titian. Elements of Altdorfer's work do suggeest influences from Italian Renaissance artists, but it has never been clarified one way or the other as to whether this artist spent time studying there.
Passion of Christ is a commonly used term within Christianity that refers to several highly significant moments in the life of Jesus Christ, one of what is captured in this painting here. The row of guards, heavily armed, plus the nobleman sat down directing orders indicates that Jesus is in series circumstances at this point. Many other artists from the Netherlandish and Italian Renaissance eras have also captured scenes from this series.